Program in Planning and Budgeting (PPBS)

Original Text

Effective Dates
10/12/1965 - 1971

Reform Goals
The Planning Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) was a system developed by the military after WWII to compare the costs and benefits of different military procurement proposals. President Johnson implemented PPBS in all government departments, bureaus and agencies to “measure the performance of our programs to ensure a dollar’s worth of service for each dollar spent.” [1]

Requirements (What of Whom?)
President Johnson issued a memorandum that required all regulatory agencies to implement the same "PPBS" system the Department of Defense created for the Navy. It required station comptrollers to maintain a classification of the programs administered, their objectives, and a current inventory of budget plans and program schedules. The station comptroller was further responsible for local budget formulation, review, and execution; the collection of obligation, expenditure, cost, and other accounting and operating data; the review of program performance against the financial plan; and the promotion of economy and efficiency in the performance of assigned programs. [2] 

Who oversaw the rule? 
The President and Bureau of the Budget

Reform “Teeth”
Presidential discretion to enforce.

No significant outcomes.

While admirable in principle, the reform was barely enforced, and discontinued by Nixon in 1971. [3] 


  1. Jack F. Hooper. "Planning, Programming, Budgeting System." Utah State University. Link 
  2. Howard Haynes. “PPBS Budget Review and Congressional Action.” Naval Postgraduate School. June 1992. Link 
  3. Marcus Peacock. "Improving the Accountability of Federal Regulatory Agencies: Part I: A Review of Government-Wide Efforts." George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center. June 22, 2016. Link , PDF